Orthodontics is a dental specialty concerned with study and treatment of malocclusions (improper bites), caused by teeth and/or jaw irregularities of teeth structure and changes of facial structure.
Myofunctional therapy incorporates modern diagnostic techniques, allowing the orthodontist to measure the strength/weakness of the orofacial musculature. The same diagnostic methods can be employed to show whether following orthodontic treatment the orofacial musculature has adapted. Should there have been no muscular adaption following orthodontics, then myofunctional therapy is essential to avoid relapse.
Treatment is predominantly to provide functionality of an improved bite. If the main goal of the treatment is the dental displacement, most commonly a fixed multibracket therapy is used. Appropriately trained doctors align the teeth with respect to the surrounding soft tissues, with or without movement of the underlying bones, which can be moved either through growth modification in children or operations on the jaw in adults.
A common problem is the deviations between the teeth of the upper and lower jaw. The top teeth can be too far forward or too far back relative to the lower teeth. Another common situation requiring orthodontic intervention is crowding of the teeth where there is not enough room for a normal set of adult teeth, so made have to have teeth removed to make space for the remaining teeth.